La BBC 1922-1995
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  • La BBC 1922-1995

La BBC 1922-1995

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Renée Dickason et Georges Fournier

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Référence
460692
ISBN
9782350306926
Hauteur :
17,8 cm
Largeur :
12 cm
Nombre de pages :
432
Reliure :
broché

INTRODUCTION .............................................15

BRITISH BROADCAST MEDIA AS A FIELD OF INVESTIGATION IN BRITISH CIVILISATION STUDIES IN FRANCE .....................21

REPÈRES

AUX ORIGINES DU TRAITEMENT FICTIONNEL DE LINFORMATION
THÉÂTRE ENGAGÉ ET RADIO ..................................30
  Le théâtre engagé .......................................31
  Hybridation générique ...................................34
  BBC Radio et ballade radiophonique ........................36

LE JOURNALISME FILMIQUE : AUX ORIGINES DUN GENRE
THE MARCH OF TIME (1935-1951) ............................41
W
ORKER AND WAR FRONT (1942-1946) .........................44
BBC
VS ITV : LA BATAILLE POUR LE TRAITEMENT DE LINFORMATION ..........46
  Information télévisée : quelle valeur ? .......................46
  Panorama vs World in Action ..............................47
  L’Affaire des
Birmingham Six .............................49

SÉRIES ET TÉLÉVISION DES ORIGINES
ENVIRONNEMENT TÉLÉVISUEL :RAPPEL HISTORIQUE ...............52
  Captation et conservation .................................55
  Séries et fidélisation .....................................57
  Donner à voir le réel .....................................58
L
A SÉRIE COMME ARCHÉTYPE DES PRODUCTIONS DES ORIGINES .......61
  Esthétique de la série ....................................62
 
Dixon of Dock Green et Z-Cars : points communs .............64
  Séries et modernité ......................................66
  La série : un genre prometteur .............................68

PUBLIC VERSUS PRIVÉ : UNE RIVALITÉ FÉCONDE
BBC ET FIDÉLISATION DU TÉLÉSPECTATEUR ......................73
  “
To make popular programmes good and good programmes popular” .75
  Sydney Newman ........................................76

T
HE WEDNESDAY PLAY (BBC 1, 1964-1970) .....................79
  Une certaine idée du service public .........................82
  Tony Garnett ...........................................

PETER WATKINS, KEN LOACH : DES TÉLÉASTES À LUNISSON DE LEUR ÉPOQUE

FILMER UNE SOCIÉTÉ EN TRANSITION ...........................87
  Quel traitement pour les thématiques sociales ? ................87
  Filmer les classes populaires ..............................89
  Pour un nouveau mode opératoire ..........................92
L
A TRADITION BRITANNIQUE DU DOCUMENTAIRE ..................93
  Données stylistiques .....................................94
  Instruire à une esthétique disruptive .........................97
P
ETER WATKINS ET LA CRITIQUE DES MÉDIAS ....................99

LA BBC ET LE POLITIQUE
LA SATIRE POLITIQUE ......................................102
  Conditions d’apparition .................................103

  That Was the Week that Was
..............................105
  L’affaire Profumo ......................................109
  David Frost ...........................................110
D
ES PROGRAMMES À CHARGE ...............................111
  1971:
Yesterday’sMen ..................................111
  Maggie’s Militant Tendency
(30 janvier 1984) ................114 
  Real Lives
(août 1985) ..................................115

PENSER LA TÉLÉVISION : THÉORISATION DES ENJEUX TÉLÉVISUELS
TÉLÉVISION ET THÉORIES CULTURELLES ........................120 
  Diffusion, décodage et résistance ..........................121
  Le téléspectateur : autorité souveraine ? .....................124
  Jouissance déculpabilisée (
Uses and Gratifications) ...........125
M
ÉDIAS ET SOCIÉTÉ .......................................128
  Le cas Philip Knight ....................................128
  Fiction et contre-pouvoir .................................129

LES PIÈGES DE LA MODERNITÉ : DE LHYBRIDITÉ À LINFO-DIVERTISSEMENT

CONDITIONS DAPPARITION .................................133
  La loi sur l’audiovisuel de 1990 ...........................133
  Le piège du direct ......................................135
P
ERSONNALISATION DES ENJEUX .............................136
  La figure politique comme thématique ......................136
  Peopolisation ..........................................138
  Proximité .............................................140
  La prégnance du réel ....................................141
L
A FICTION-DOCUMENTAIRE .................................143
  Fiction-documentaire et télévision du service public ...........143
  Définition d’un genre télévisuel ...........................146
  La fiction-documentaire comme remède à la téléréalité ? .......148
FLY-ON-THE-WALL ET TÉLÉRÉALITÉ : UNE PROXIMITÉ TROMPEUSE ....149
  Desenjeuxsociétaux ...................................149
  L’expérimentation sociale ................................151

  The Year of the Sex Olympics
(1968) .......................152
 
Living in the Past (1978) .................................153

PRINCIPLES AND MUTATIONS OF THE BRITISH AUDIOVISUAL LANDSCAPE

THE BEGINNINGS OF RADIO
THE BRITISH BROADCASTING COMPANY AND THE BRITISH BROADCASTING CORPORATION .................160
T
HE REITH YEARS, 1927-1938 ..............................163
T
HE (PREMATURE) START OF TELEVISION .......................165

THE SECOND WORLD WAR, FROM PEACE TO WAR AND BACK AGAIN
BATTLING THROUGH ......................................167
T
HE BBC: A BROADCASTER TO OCCUPIED COUNTRIES .............168
B
UILDING NATIONAL MORALE ...............................168
F
ROM INFORMATION TO ENTERTAINMENT .......................169
A
CHANGE OF HABITS .....................................169

POST-WAR YEARS AND THE GOLDEN AGE OF RADIO
MOVING ON FROM PRE-WAR AND WARTIME PROGRAMMES ..........171
T
HE RETURN OF TELEVISION ................................171

RADIO IN THE 1960S
RADIO UNDER PRESSURE ...................................173
P
ROGRAMMES ...........................................173
P
OP MUSIC .............................................174
M
USIC BROADCAST RESTRICTIONS AND THE RETURN OF CONTINENTAL COMPETITION ................174
W
AVING THE JOLLY ROGER: THE ARRIVAL OF PIRATE RADIO ........175
T
HE BBC’S POST-PIRATE RADIOS .............................176

RADIO FROM THE 1970S TO THE END OF THE 1990S
RADIO LISTENING AS A SPECIFIC ACTIVITY ......................179
T
HE 1972 SOUND BROADCASTING ACT AND ITS CONSEQUENCES .....180
T
HE SUCCESS OF BBC RADIO 1 .............................181
I
NDEPENDENT LOCAL AND NATIONAL RADIO ....................181
T
HE 1990 BROADCASTING ACT AND ITS CONSEQUENCES ...........182
T
HE PROGRESS OF INDEPENDENT LOCAL RADIO .................182
BBC
RADIO AT THE END OF THE 1990S ........................184

TELEVISION IN THE EARLY 1990S
PREVIOUS REFLEXIONS LEADING TO 1990S BROADCASTING ACTS ....185
T
HE NEW BROADCASTING TURNING POINT: STAKES AND CHALLENGES OF THE 1990S .......................190

BBC CULTURE THROUGH THE KEY COMPONENTS OF PUBLIC SERVICE: INFORMATION, EDUCATION, ENTERTAINMENT

BRITISH RADIO AND TELEVISION AS LIVING ARCHIVES .............199

BRITISH TELEVISION CULTURE:A FEW REMINDERS ................202

EARLY AND ONGOING BROADCAST STRANDS .....................205

LIGHT ENTERTAINMENT: A QUESTION OF PERSONALITIES ...........207

DEPICTING SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ISSUES
THE MONARCHY AND NATIONAL TRADITIONS ....................209
T
IPS FOR LIVING AND BROADENING MINDS ......................211
N
EWS AND CURRENT AFFAIRS ...............................214
T
HE FOURTH ESTATE ......................................218

INTERWOVEN DESTINIES: EDUCATION BY TELEVISION, A MARRIAGE OF CONVENIENCE
ADEBATABLE SUBJECT ....................................222
T
HE START OF EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION .......................226
G
ROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT ................................229
1990
S BBC PROGRAMMES FOR SPREADING KNOWLEDGEAND SUPPORTING TRAINING .................................230

CHILDRENS PROGRAMMES: A RICH FIELD FOR BLENDING EDUCATION, INFORMATION AND ENTERTAINMENT
HISTORY AND EXPECTATIONS ................................233
P
UPPETS AND STORYTELLING ................................235
C
OMPETITION: A DRAMATIC RESPONSE .........................238
F
LAGSHIP PROGRAMMES ...................................242

DAILY LIFE REVISITED IN BRITISH TELEVISION SERIES: REALITY, VERISIMILITUDE, IDEALIZATION OR FANTASY SOAP OPERAS À LANGLAISE OR THE PORTRAIT OF A SOCIETY
HABITS, AUDIENCES AND THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF BRITISH SOAP OPERA ...................................251
T
HE INGREDIENTS OF BRITISH SOAP OPERA .....................254
  Realism or idealized reality? .............................257
  The wind of change of the 1980s ..........................259
A
FLEXIBLE AND ENDURING GENRE ...........................263

DETECTIVE (OR POLICE OR CRIME) SERIES AND SCIENCE FICTION SERIES
THE ENDURING FASCINATION OF CRIME AND DETECTION ............267
(U
N)OFFICIAL, OVER-GIFTED DETECTIVES .......................268
A
POLICEMANS LOT IS (NOT)A HAPPY ONE .....................270
F
ANTASY AND ESCAPE INTO ANOTHER UNREAL AND IMAGINARY WORLD .....27

BBC SITCOMS: DEVELOPING THE FIELD OF COMIC POSSIBILITIES
CHARACTERISTICS OF BRITISH SITCOMS ........................284
T
HE EMERGENCE OF SITCOMS ...............................287
T
HE SIXTIES AND THE EARLY BBC DOMCOMS ...................288
TILL DEATH US DO PART: COMEDY OR CONTROVERSY? ............290
F
URTHER 1960S SITCOMS, DEVELOPMENT AND CONSOLIDATION ...............293
E
CCLESIASTICAL SITCOMS ..................................295
1970
S WORKCOMS, DOMCOMS AND HYBRIDS ....................296
S
UBURBAN 1970S SITCOMS .................................301
S
ITCOMS AT WAR: ON THE HOME FRONT .......................303
F
RANCE AT WAR: ALLO’ ALLO, RESISTING EVERYTHING BUT TEMPTATION .......................304
A
TOUCH OF CLASS AND SWEET COMEDY .......................306
F
AWLTY TOWERS, A CULT SERIES ..............................307
S
ITCOMS OF THE 1980S AND 1990S, NEW THEMES AND OLD THEMES REVISITED ......................309
A
LTERNATIVE COMEDY AND BEYOND ..........................312
T
HE POLITICAL SCENE AS A COMEDY SITUATION ..................316
F
OOD FOR FURTHER THOUGHTS ..............................318

OUTILS

KEY DATES IN BRITISH TELEVISION

LE CONTRÔLE SUR LA BBC
MINISTÈRE DES POSTES, MINISTÈRE DE L’INTÉRIEUR PUIS MINISTÈRE EN CHARGE DU NUMÉRIQUE, DE LA CULTURE, DES MÉDIAS ET DES SPORTS .346
L
A DIRECTION ...........................................347
L
A CHARTE ROYALE ......................................347
L
E CONSEIL DES GOUVERNEURS (BOARD OF GOVERNORS) ............... 347
T
HE BROADCASTING COMPLAINTS COMMISSION (1981-1997) .......349
B
ROADCASTING STANDARDS COUNCIL (1988-1997) ..............349
B
ROADCASTING STANDARDS COMMISSION (1988-2003) ...........349
N
OTESDESERVICE, CODES, PROCÉDURES, OUVRAGES, ETC. .........350
L
IVRES BLANCS ET LOIS ....................................351

TABLEAUX
RÉGULATION DE LAUDIOVISUEL SCHÉMATISÉE À PARTIR DU BROADCASTING ACT 1996 ..................................353
G
OVERNMENTS, PRIME MINISTERS AND MINISTERS RESPONSIBLE FOR BRITISH RADIO AND TELEVISION (1922-97) .....................353
D
IRECTORS GENERAL AND CHAIRMEN OF BBC GOVERNORS (1927-96) .356

LES GRANDS NOMS DU PETIT ÉCRAN BBC ......................357

LES PROGRAMMES LES PLUS CONNUS DE LA BBC ................365

THEMATIC AND CHRONOLOGICAL CORPUS OF BBC RADIO AND TELEVISION PROGRAMMES
BBC RADIO ............................................369
  News, documentaries, talk shows and panel games ...........369
  Religious broadcasts ....................................371
  Educative and educational programmes .....................371
  Comedy ..............................................372
  Drama, soap opera .....................................373
  Variety ...............................................373
BBC T
ELEVISION ........................................374
  News, documentaries, talk shows and panel games ............374
  Educative programmes, short films or series for young people ............375
  TV Police Drama ......................................376
  Soap operas, drama series, science-fiction and telefantasy ..........377
  Variety ...............................................377
  Comedy ..............................................378

SIGLES ET ABRÉVIATIONS ....................................380

SOURCES ................................................383

BIBLIOGRAPHIE ...........................................386

INDEX ANALYTIQUE ........................................409


Renée Dickason, professeure des Universités à Rennes, spécialiste de l’audiovisuel britannique sur lequel elle travaille depuis une trentaine d’années, est l’auteure de nombreuses publications dans ce domaine en France et à l’étranger. Dans le présent volume, elle a rédigé les parties en anglais.

Georges Fournier est professeur à l’université de Limoges, où il conduit des recherches en civilisation britannique. Spécialiste des médias, il a publié de nombreux articles sur les représentations filmiques des enjeux politiques et sociaux. Dans le présent volume, il a rédigé les parties en français.

Soap operas first saw the light of day on radio in the United States in the 1930s, taking their name from the financial help (broadcast sponsorship) offered by manufacturers of washing and home care products, “soapers” in the jargon of the time, such as Procter and Gamble, or Colgate. The most notable characteristics of soap operas broadcast on British television are their frequency, their regularity and their format, as broadcasting a programme in a fixed time spot improves chances of it attracting a regular audience: since the 1980s, British- produced soap operas have been transmitted every weekday. Unlike other series, soap operas start from a story that links all the episodes together. The subtlety of the genre is that the story has no obvious end in sight, which allows viewers of all ages to join the band of fans at any moment. The world of each “soap” has so strong a culture and attraction that viewing can become a regular habit, the more so as, if a viewer misses an episode, he (or more usually she, as indicated below) can find a summary on the internet or watch the “omnibus” edition, the complete run of the week’s programmes rebroadcast at weekends.

Watching one’s favourite soap(s) becomes a daily activity, a task like all the other household duties, doing the shopping, taking the children on the school run or going to work. This passion close to an addiction results from this societal phenomenon whose trick is to bring the characters and their families to life in real time. As a result, in long-running programmes like Coronation Street and EastEnders, to take only two examples, viewers grow old with the characters, or vice versa, and, as a result, as Christine Geraghty puts it: “the longer [soaps] run, the more it seems impossible to imagine the ending” [GERAGHTY, 1991, 11].

British soaps are grounded in the realities of the world as viewers know it: the characters are ordinary people like themselves or their neighbours and their lives may be blighted by the scourges, new and old, of modern human and social life, such as seropositivity and AIDS, debt and unemployment. Media specialists and theoreticians generally consider soap operas as a genre that appeals most to a female audience, men allegedly preferring to watch action or adventure programmes or sports broadcasts.